Can you apply a nursing theory to support your assumptions?

A Traditional Theory for Opioid Tolerance

Opioid receptor desensitization and internalization is a mechanism for the development of opiate tolerance and physical dependency (Zuo, 2005). Research has found that repeated use of opiate can lead to significant health complications. This theory outlines the concept through which people who are exposed to the opiate substance can end up becoming addicts. This theory is based on morphine which is the main cause of opiate tolerance. This theory also explains why patients with back pain require opiate prescriptions can easily be denied the prescription and exposed to depression than those who regularly use oral narcotics. This traditional theory also attributes to certain ways through which receptor internalization can be used as a means to prevent opiate tolerance. The role of β-arrestins in opiate receptors has also been widely covered in this theory to give an insight into how the desensitization and internalization of opiate normally happen in the human body (Zuo, 2005). According to this theory, patients with chronic opioid use usually require larger doses of opioids to produce postoperative pain relief than opioid naïve patients.

Zuo, Z. (2005). The role of opioid receptor internalization and β-arrestins in the development of opioid tolerance. Anesthesia & Analgesia101(3), 728-734.

I need to answer that question!!! Professor still asking.

Okay for a conceptual framework but what about a Nursing Theory? Go to and see what would work with your assumptions.