Creating a Works Cited page
Because of CV19, for this semester only, you may use all online books, but source them as regular books. For example, if you use an online book by one author instead of an actual book, cite it as a regular book, not an online book. Physical books are sourced differently than online books. For this assignment, pretend that any online books are physical books.
Our next assignment will be to create a Works Cited page using Chapter 26 in the Handbook for Writers (Â make sure your book has the gold star on the front with the new 2016 updates). This will count as a composition grade. Now, it is impossible to memorize how to do a Works Cited page because there are so many ways to cite material; however, all you have to know is how to use chapter 26. Your assignment will have a total of ten citations.Â Make sure to use the MLA Works Cited List Directory. Do not try to use the MLA In-Text Citation Directory to create a Works Cited page. The numbers, being 2, 27, 40, 41, and 84, correspond to the numbers in the MLA Works Cited List Directory on page 300. The citations for the assignment are: (2) two articles in a scholarly journal with a print version: database, (27) two books by one author, (40) two whole anthologies, (41) two selections from an anthology (make sure they are different anthologies), and (84) two government websites. This will give you a total of ten. There is an example Works Cited page on page 346. Your Works Cited page should look, at a glance, exactly like the example on 346.
To do the assignment, I will explain using (27) a book by one author. First, find a book by just one author; it can be any book by one author, not two or more authors. Two or three or more authors require different citation formats. Next, look up a book by one author in the MLA Works Cited List Directory in chapter 26, page 300. You will see that it is (27). It tells you to turn to page 320 for an example model citation. Now, all you have to do is plug in the information from your book into the example/formula given in chapter 26. Use the examples in chapter 26 to make your citations. This is all you have to do to make a citation of your own. For instance, use your bookâ€™s authorâ€™s last name, type a comma, type the first name, and type a period. Then, type the bookâ€™s title, italicize it, and place a period at the end. After that, type the name of the publishing company and a comma. Finally, type the date and a period. As you can see, it is all fill in the blank. All you are doing is placing your sourceâ€™s information into the example/formula in chapter 26. This should be a very easy assignment and grade.Â The key is to pay attention to the details. In other words, do not forget to use the proper punctuation in the example and make sure to include all of the information that the model citation requires. In short, do not omit or forget to type in the publishing company name and remember to use the proper punctuation after each word (ex: do not place a colon where a comma should be). Creating a Works Cited page is, basically, a fill in the blank process. In summary, decide what your source is, look up the source in the MLA Works Cited List Directory in chapter 26, go to the citation model, take the information from your source and make it look exactly like the model citation on your Works Cited page. For instance, if the model has an authorâ€™s last name, take the last name of your author from your source and type it on your Works Cited page. If a comma comes after the last name in the model, you type a comma after the last name on your Works Cited page. If there is a space after the comma in the model, place a space after the comma on your Works Cited page. If there is an authorâ€™s first name after the space in the model citation, then you type the first name of your author on your Works Cited page. This is what must be done for every citation/source in your paper.
Lastly, I want everyone to do their own work. In other words,Â do not use a citation engine or anything to create the citations for you. I want you to type them out yourself. If you do not type them out yourself using the Handbook for Writers, this will be counted as cheating and/or plagiarism.Â The reason for this is, basically, because most citation engines are junk and are flawed. Also, I want you to know how to make a proper citation. Later on, when you know how a citation must be done, then you might want to try to find a good citation engine. However, if you do not know how to do citations yourself, then how will you know which ones are junk and which ones are not? The main reason I am being so strict with this is because, if you turn in a paper that has improper citation in the body of a paper or an improper Works Cited page and then you tell the instructor that the citation engine you used must have been incorrect, the instructor will still give you a zero for the assignment or drop you from a course with an F for plagiarism. There are no excuses that can be used for improper citation. If citation is improperly done in the body of a paper or sources are not properly done on a Works Cited page, it is always plagiarism. This is not an instructor being personally picky or mean. It is just that errors in citation are always considered plagiarism. You cannot blame a citation engine for errors, just as you cannot blame spell-check for poor spelling. Spelling may cost you major points on a paper, but improper citation will cause you to be dropped from a course with an F, which will permanently be on your academic record. Therefore, do not use citation engines until you know how to cite properly without them. Once you can properly create citations without them, you will be able to find the errors in citation engines and generators and, possibly, find a good one to use, but they are far and few between. Also, Purdue/Owl are not correct and should not be used or relied upon.
Here are some things to keep in mind when you are creating your Works Cited page:
-Works Cited should be centered and written at the top. Do not use bibliography, references, sources, works cited page, or works consultedâ€¦only Works Cited. Also, do not bold, underline, italicize, use quotation marks around, or change the font size of Works Cited.
-double-space the Works Cited page
-list the Works Cited page in alphabetical order, no numbers or bullets
-on the Works Cited page, for any 2nd, 3rd, 4th, lines, skip a space and indent one tab. Do not indent the first line. Tab all the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. lines. Hint: set the hanging indent when setting up the spacing on the Works Cited page to hanging.
-place periods at the end of MLA citations on Works Cited page
Our next paper will require citations and a Works Cited page, and if it is not cited properly, the paper will not be passed. Do not worry. Our next paper can be revised, so if you do not pass because of citation issues, you will have a chance to revise. However, after ENG 111, in English and other college courses, there will be no revisions; therefore, we must learn how to properly cite in this course. For example, in ENG 112, the course after this one, your instructors will probably not even go over citation and will expect you to know how to cite properly because you passed ENG 111. They will also not let you revise a paper that is not cited properly. Moreover, they may even give you a zero for an assignment or drop you from a course for improper citation, so we have to learn how to cite properly now.
Setting up a Works Cited page:
Open a blank Microsoft Word document.
Do not type anything.
Change the Font style to Times New Roman.
Change the font size to 12.
Where you see paragraph in the center of the MS Word document tools, slightly move to the right and click on the little arrow.
A line spacing box will open.
Where it says Special, change it from none to hanging by clicking on the arrow in the box.
Change line spacing to double.
Place a check in the box that says â€œDonâ€™t add space between paragraphs of the same style.â€
There should be no need to create a page number if you have already set the page numbers up in the paper.
The page is now properly formatted.
Center your cursor on the page and type: Works Cited
Align the cursor to the left and begin creating citations.
To find articles in a scholarly journal with a print version: database (citation number 2), open the TCC web page, hover over Service and Support, click on Libraries, scroll down to Visit The Library Website, click on Articles, click on All Databasesâ€¦now you are in TCCâ€™s collection of databases. Use the database called Academic Search Complete; it is an easy to use database. Click on it. If you are on your own computer, you will have to log into TCC. If you are at TCC, you do not have to log into the system. Now you are in the Academic Search Complete database. Scroll down slightly. Place a check in the box that says Full Text and check the box that says Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals. Scroll back up. Type any subject into the search box using key wordsâ€¦omit small connector words. Press Enter. Now you will see a list of article titles. Pick any article title and click on it.Â Note: If you do not see pdf files in the article, you did not put a check in the box that said Full Text, so you will not be sourcing a print article. A print article means that the article is actually on physical paper, not just digital. After clicking on the article title, a page will open up with everything you will need to create a citation. All of the citation information needed is on this page.
College level courses and instructors will require you to use academic databases whenever you write papers, do projects, and, basically, for all work that requires research. Surfing Google, Bing, Youtube, Yahoo, Google Scholar, or using any other non-academic source will not be allowed when doing work in most, if not all, college level courses. In short, citation number 2 and college databases are going to become your best friends throughout your college career. When instructors require academic sources, they are requiring you to use college level databases. College databases should be the first places to go when doing college level work. You are expected to use them as a college student.
When you have found an article in an academic database, you can print it, save it, email it, or open the pdf and read it. Non-academic sources, even if sourced properly, will not be given credit as sources and will not be counted as sources. Basically, if a paper requires four sources and you only have three academic sources and a random source that is not academic, you should be prepared for a very low grade and/or possibly having the paper not accepted at all. The assignment called for four sources, the instructor expects you to know that sources should all be academic sources because you are a college level student, especially if you have already passed the first college composition class, and having a minimum amount of sources means having academic sources, so if a paper does not have all academic sources for the required amount of sources, then the paper or project did not meet minimum requirements to be graded or accepted. In simple terms, use academic databases to find articles for research. One final note: For your assignment, you cannot find books, anthologies, works in anthologies, of government web pages in most databases. College databases usually only have journal collections, and journals have many articles in them. Use databases to find journals and articles.
Below is some information about proper MLA Citation in the body of a paper:
For the MLA citations, you have to create a Works Cited page at the end of the paper that has the complete citation. In the body of the paper, you must use an in-text citation, which is placed at the end of the sentence and looks like this (Smith 42) or (American Cancer 42). Smith would be the author’s last name and 42 would be the page number. American Cancer, being The American Cancer Society, would be the online source’s name and, again, 42 would be the page number the quote or information was taken from. If I see (Smith 42) in the body of the paper, then that will refer me to the Works Cited page, at the end of the paper, where the full citation is written out. Here is an example of a quote and an in-text citation: According to Douglass Adams, author ofÂ The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, â€œthe answer to the ultimate question is 42â€ (166). You could also write: â€œThe answer to the ultimate question is 42,â€ according to Douglass Adams, author ofÂ The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the GalaxyÂ (166). Both are acceptable and correct. However, if you do not introduce your source, you must place the authorâ€™s last name and the page number or paragraph number in the in-text citation. For instance: According to the author ofÂ The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, â€œthe answer to the ultimate question is 42â€ (Adams 166). I would prefer the former to the latter. One must always preface a quote or tell where it came from, put quotation marks around what is quoted, and then place the author’s last name and page number in paraeneses with a period at the end. The only difference when paraphrasing is that you do not use the quotation marks, but you must still introduce the quote and use an in-text citation. Do not do this (Smith, 42). Do not place a comma in the in-text citation.
-Â The format for a quote should be: Critical introduction, â€œthe quoteâ€ (in-text citation). All quotes in the body of a paper must follow this format.
-Proper format, but improper content.
According to Douglass Adams, author ofÂ The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, â€œthe answer to the ultimate question is 42â€ (166).
-Best format and content.
According to John Smith, CEO of Metal Detectors are Us and author of â€œSchool Safety,â€ â€œinstalling metal detectors reduces school shootings because guns are found before they are brought on school property. For example, in 2020, schools with metal detectors found 34 guns, which possibly prevented 34 school shootingsâ€ (23).
-If a source does not use page numbers or have pagination, use a paragraph number. Count down the number of paragraphs to find the paragraph number. A normal in-text citation from a source with page numbers would look like: (Smith 33), (33), or (American Cancer 33). An in-text citation from a source without page numbers, using only a paragraph number, would look like (Smith p.4), (p.4), or (American Cancer p.4Â ). p. means paragraph, not page. Again, p. means paragraph, not page.Â Only use p. for paragraphs. Do no use p. for pages. For pages, just use the number.
-If a source does not have a specific author, for example, American Cancer Society, then use the first word or two of the beginning of a citation on your Works Cited page for the in-text citation. In this case, the in-text citation should be (American) or (American Cancer). Depending on the type of source, you would have to place the page or paragraph number in the in-text citation. For a source with pages, (American 33) or (American Cancer 33). For a source with paragraphs and no pagination, (American p.5) or (American Cancer p.5). Remember, p. means paragraph, not page.
-To find out what word should be used in an in-text citation, look down the left side of your Works Cited page. Look at the beginning of the citation. There will usually be an authorâ€™s last name, so the in-text citation would contain that last name. Example: (Smith 33). The audience can then see an introduction, quote, and an in-text citation in your paper, look down the left side of your Works Cited page, see the beginning of a citation, and know exactly which source you are quoting from. If there is no author, follow the same rule. Look down the left side of the Works Cited page and use the first word or two of the citation in your in-text citation. Example: (American Cancer 33). The audience of your paper can quickly look at your Works Cited page, scan down the citations on it, see the citation that begins with American Cancer, and find which source the quote corresponds to on the Works Cited page.Â Do not create an in-text citation from information in the body of a source on the Works Cited page.
-If you introduce the author, just place a page or paragraph number in the in-text citation.
-Place in-text citations at the end of a sentence, not at the end of the quote
-Begin and end paragraphs with your words since it is your paper. Do not begin or end paragraphs with quotation or sentences that contain quotation.
-Whenever you quote someone, always try to say something in your own words about the quote. You should always try to interpret, explain, add to, subtract from, agree with, disagree with, point out faulty logic, or show the reasoning behind a quote. Try not to link too many quotes together. Use quotation for support, but do not let it write or dominate parts of your paper. Always place a comment after a quote…do not just go right into another quote. Writing a paper is not running or linking quotes together.Â 75% of a paper must be in your own words.
-Always say something critical about a quotation before moving on to a different topic, subject, or other quote. Always make critical comment on a quote. Never leave a quotation hanging. Never expect the quote to speak for itself.
-When quoting, always introduce a quote, use quotation marks around the quoted words, and place an in-text citation at the end of the sentence This must be done in order to protect yourself from accidental plagiarism due to improper citation
-When paraphrasing,Â which is not allowed in this course, always introduce the paraphrase and place an in-text citation at the end of it. Basically, the only difference between quotation and paraphrasing is the use of quotation marks. Everything else stays the same. It is especially important to introduce a paraphrase in order to let the audience know where it begins; otherwise, they will become confused about which are your words and which are paraphrased words from a source. Therefore, always clearly introduce paraphrases. Paraphrasing should not be done unless you are quoting from a chart or graph, unless you can write something better than the original author, or, sometimes, to capture the idea of an author by summarizing. Paraphrasing is a more advanced form of citation, so it should be used sparingly. Lastly, one cannot manipulate an authorâ€™s ideas in a paraphrase. Even though you are changing the words, the main idea of the paraphrase should not be changed. EX: According to Dr. John Smith, author ofÂ Duck Lovers, â€œDucks love swimming in waterâ€ (42). This would be a direct quote. However, you might paraphrase it: According to Dr. John Smith, author ofÂ Duck Lovers, Ducks like paddling in water (42). See? Two words were changed, but the idea remains the same. This would be a proper paraphrase. However, you cannot say: According to Dr. John Smith, author ofÂ Duck Lovers, Ducks love swimming in water, which makes them easy to shoot (42). Paraphrasing does not allow you to change the ideas of an author.
-Do not quote small, insignificant passages like. Ex: According to Dr. John Smith, author ofÂ Duck Lovers, â€œpets are greatâ€ (42). This quote is not critical. Also, it could be applied to any pet in any context. Quote full length sentences and ideas.
-Never use a web address as an in-text citation
-Missing in-text citations count as plagiarism
-MLA citations should not be used in an introduction and conclusion. One should save most of the juicy details for the body of the essay. Do not quote or place research in introductions or conclusions. First and last lines of a paragraph should not be quotes. Place quotes in the body of a paper and in the bodies of paragraphs.
-There is no need to use quotation marks around a quote that has been indented. The indention shows that it is quoted. Quotes of more than four lines are indented. Also, the period jumps to the left of the in-text citation and the quotation marks disappear. Long quotes are used in longer papers. However, since our papers only have to be two pages, I only want a maximum of one quoted sentence per paragraph.
-Use your quotations to support your ideas, not to write the paper for you. For example, begin and end paragraphs with your own words, only use a quoted sentence or two in the middle of a paragraph, and then say something in your own words about your quotation. You can agree with, disagree with, add to, subtract from, or interpret the quotation. You do not want a series of linked quotes that write the paper for you. In other words, do not simply write the first and last sentences of a paragraph in your words and have the rest of the body sentences being quotation. Seventy five percent of a paper should be written in your words. Remember, it is your paper, so it should mostly be written in your own words.
-Say something critical in your own words about your quotation. You can agree with, disagree with, add to, subtract from, or interpret the quotation. Do not simply move on or into another quote. Do not just say a quote is right or wrong. In critical detail, explain why the information in a quote is logical or illogical, rational or irrational, and show some examples of how the logic, information, and ideas in a quote work or do not work.
-The use of footnotes is no longer needed or acceptable
-If a paper is cited improperly, it is very, very difficult for an instructor to pass a paper, even if the rest of the paper is perfect
-Make sure that the quotation marks are in Times New Roman, 12 pt. font in the body of a paper and on the Works Cited page. When you copy and paste information, the format and font of the quotation marks, sometimes, does not switch to your paper format. If this happens, just backspace the quotation marks out and put them back in. When you type them in manually, they change to the format of your paper, which should be Times New Roman, 12 pt. font.
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