Topic: historical movement and the current movement(choose a good topic)
Please read and follow the instruction file carefully and the Ethnic And Racial Minorities pdf that I have provided. FIVE paragraphs. An introduction, 3 body paragraphs and a conclusion.
2. A work cited page with all your used sources. (MLA Format)
Identify 3 elements that are similar between the selected historical movement and the current movement/issue.
historical movement: Freedom Riders Movement
current movement/issue: The Black Lives Matter
The 3 selected elements to compare are
1. the protection of indigenous land, 2. the protection of indigenous treaties 3. the protection of indigenous health.
We will be developing a comparison essay following the “point-by-point” structure. You will use content from the unit(Ethnic And Racial Minorities pdf I have provided) and your researched information. Focus on the similarities (not differences) For example, the structured outline will look like this:
Introduction: General information about BOTH AIM and Standing Rock Thesis: The 3 similarities between AIM and Standing Rock are the protection of indigenous land, treaties and health.
• Start with a lead-in statement. Grab the attention of the reader • Identify the 2 comparable subjects. In the example above, they are AIM and Standing Rock. • Transition into your thesis. In the example above, I would change it to: Although AIM and Standing Rock are separated by years, the 3 similarities between AIM and Standing Rock are the protection of indigenous land, treaties and health.
Body Paragraphs: The paragraph clearly compares and contrasts points that are sophisticated, offers specific examples to illustrate the comparison, and includes only the information relevant to the unit. **The paragraph introduces researched information and uses strong evidence to support the topic sentence. ***Provides a comment after each use of support and connects it back to the overall topic of comparison. **** There is a clear connection to the unit. ***** Uses transitions to ensure cohesion from one idea to the next.
Body Paragraph 1. The protection of indigenous land
A. AIM B. Standing Rock Body Paragraph 1. Topic to Compare 1 A. Historical Movement B. Contemporary movement/issue
Body Paragraph 2. The protection of indigenous treaties A. AIM B. Standing Rock Body Paragraph 2. Topic to Compare 2 A. Historical Movement B. Contemporary movement/issue
Body Paragraph 3. The protection of indigenous health A. AIM B. Standing Rock Body Paragraph 3. Topic to Compare 3 A. Historical Movement B. Contemporary movement/issue
Conclusion: Final Thoughts
• Begin by restating the thesis. In the example above, I would change it to: As argued, AIM and Standing Rock were separated by years, yet the 3 similarities between AIM and Standing Rock demonstrated the value of social mobilization… • A summary of the 3 points. • A final statement/thought that connects to the lead-in statement used in the introduction. This enables the whole essay to connect.
1. The body breaks the information into point-by-point structure. It follows a consistent order when discussing the comparison. 2. When discussing the comparison, the writing demonstrates mastery of the unit(Ethnic And Racial Minorities pdf I have provided). 3. Includes only the information relevant to the comparison. (As always… focus on the unit) 4. Research is used to support the information presented. 5. Provide a comment after each use of support. Comments are vital because all argumentative, data driven papers require you to link each research point in the support back to the thesis. Without such links, your reader will be unable to see how the selected support logically and systematically advances your argument. 6. Use transitions to enable a cohesive paper. In a compare essay, you also need to make links between A and B in the body of your essay if you want your paper to hold together. To make these links, use transitional expressions of comparison and contrast (similarly, moreover, likewise, on the contrary, conversely, on the other hand) and contrastive vocabulary. Four Stages of Social Movements Social Movements & Collecve Behavior
Essay by Jonathan Christiansen, M.A. EBSCO Research Starters® • Copyright © 2009 EBSCO Publishing Inc. An explanation of what defines a social movement is followed by a description of the development and theory of the model of the four stages of social movements. The four stages of social movement development are emergence, coalescence, bureaucratization, and decline. The Decline stage can result from several different causes, such as repression, co-optation, success, failure, and mainstream. The four stages of development model can be applied to understand how movements form, grow, and dissipate. It has limitations, however, in its application to new social movements and movements that are not rooted in political action. Despite these limitations, the four stages model is still highly useful in understanding collective action and provides a useful frame of analysis for sociologists considering social movements and their effects in the past and present. Overview
There have been many social movements throughout history that have dramatically changed the societies in which they occurred. There have been many failed social movements as well. Throughout the history of the United States alone there have been a number of important and notable social movements. These movements have varied widely in their ideologies; some movements have been revolutionary in their aims, some have advocated reforms to the existing system, and others still have been conservative in their orientation and have worked to oppose changes in society. Social movements have varied in scope as well. For example, many movements are limited to local policies while others have been international in their focus. Despite all of the differences in social movements though, there are important analytic similarities that sociologists have distinguished, especially with regard to the life cycle of a social movement. Because social movements have led to so many dramatic changes in societies around the globe, scholars have spent a great deal of time trying to understand where they come from, who participates in them, how they succeed, and how they fail. Much of what they have discovered is that social movements do not just happen; they require many resources and have many stages through which they develop. In other words, people do not simply suddenly become upset with a policy or even a ruling system and then instantly form a social movement with a coherent ideology that is capable of holding mass demonstrations or overthrowing an existing power structure. Instead, social movements grow through four stages. Stage 1: Emergence Stage 2: Coalescence Stage 3: Bureaucratization Stage 4: Decline
Examining these stages of social movements has enabled sociologists to better understand social movements in general, despite variances in movement ideology and scope. What is a Social Movement?
Defining what, exactly, a social movement is can be difficult. It is not a political party or interest group, which are stable political entities that have regular access to political power and political elites; nor is it a mass fad or trend, which are unorganized, fleeting and without goals. Instead they are somewhere in between (Freeman & Johnson, 1999). Some characteristics of social movements are that they are “involved in conflictual relations with clearly identified opponents; are linked by dense informal networks; [and they] share a distinct collective identity” (De la Porta & Diani, 2006, p. 20). Social movements, then, can be thought of as organized yet informal social entities that are engaged in extra-institutional conflict that is oriented towards a goal. These goals can be either aimed at a specific and narrow policy or be more broadly aimed at cultural change. To early scholars, collective action was inherently oriented towards change. Some of the earliest works on social movements were attempts to understand why people got caught up in collective action or what conditions were necessary to foment social movements. These works were rooted in theories of mass society. Mass society theory was concerned with the increasing industrialization of society, which many felt led to a sense of alienation among individuals as traditional social structures and support networks broke down. The study of social movements as specific social processes with specific patterns emerged from this field of study. Four Stages of Social Movements
One of the earliest scholars to study social movement processes was Herbert Blumer, who identified four stages of social movements’ lifecycles. The four stages he described were: “social ferment,” “popular excitement,” “formalization,” and “institutionalization” (De la Porta & Diani 2006, p.150). Since his early work, scholars have refined and renamed these stages but the underlying themes have remained relatively constant. Today, the four social movement stages are known as emergence, coalescence, bureaucratization, decline. Although the term decline may sound negative, it should not necessarily be understood in negative terms. Scholars have noted that social movements may decline for several reasons and have identified five ways they do decline. These are: success, organizational failure, co-optation, repression, or establishment within mainstream society (Macionis, • 2001; Miller, 1999). Stage 1: Emergence Stage 2: Coalescence Stage 3: Bureaucratization Stage 4: Decline Applica ons
Sociologists can use the theory of the four stages of social movements as an analytic tool for understanding how collective action goals and appearance, it can be helpful to place them within a common framework in order to
determine how social movements affect society on a wide scale. Sociologists, as well as potential social movement leaders and participants, can also use the four stages to evaluate the strategies of a specific social movement, and whether they were effective or not. For example, movements in the coalescence stage can anticipate the need to advance into the next level of development, bureaucratization, and can act accordingly to increase their power and influence. In addition, close consideration of the various modes of decline for social movements can help current social movements avoid the outcomes of co-optation and failure, and perhaps better position themselves for success. The four stages of social movement development can also help scholars understand the ways that social movements affect society. By analyzing social movements that occur at given points and stages, sociologists can gain insight into the workings of society and the changes it undergoes – a fundamental component to the work of sociologists. For example, looking at the periods of emergence and coalescence in the American Civil Rights Movements presents a way to observe how society has changed as a result of the movement. In addition, we can better understand the events that occur at various stages in the social movement in retrospect as part of a process or change, rather than as individual events. Viewpoints
While the theory of the four stages of social movements offers some useful insight into some movements, it has limitations as well. Some of the limitations are a result of the organizational emphasis and a preoccupation with political change. Social movements with clearly defined political complaints and goals tend to fit well into the model, but other types of social movements present some problems. Social movements also emerge in response to cultural and social issues, and these movements do not fit as easily into the stages of development. Social movement theory has increasingly moved toward examining new social movements, or movements that have emerged since the 1960s around issues of identity and quality of life (Inglehart, 1990; Melucci, 1995). Many also tend to emphasize social changes in lifestyle instead of specific changes in public policy or for economic change. For example, the Slow Food movement advocates in opposition to the fast-food lifestyle that members find unhealthy and unsustainable. The movement encourages lifestyle changes and altered consumer habits on an individual level, but it does not seek to outlaw fast-food or affect a specific policy change. Instead, the movement argues for a cumulative effect on society as a result of the movements’ members’ individual actions. Social movements may not develop through the stages as described, or they may skip stages altogether. Generally, most movements do reach the stage of coalescence, since it is at that point that we begin to see behavior that we define as a social movement. Yet the movement may never grow beyond this second stage, and members may never develop into formal organizations. Some social movements consciously choose to reject bureaucratization for ideological reasons. This is particularly more prevalent as technology increases, making movement members able to communicate and engage with the movement through internet websites without formal groups ever coming together. The four stages of social movements can be too rigidly applied as well. It is important to consider that the stages of development are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and that a movement could in fact move backwards at points. For example, the social movement organization SDS underwent a period of decline in the 1970s, but in the early 2000s saw a re-emergence. The contemporary SDS organizes around similar principles and draws upon the existing structure of SDS after the group had already undergone the fourth stage of decline. Another condition unaddressed by the four stages is the state of social movement abeyance, in which a movement
temporarily ceases outreach and mass mobilization in order to focus on maintaining identity and values (Taylor 1989; Meyers & Sawyers, 1999). Sociologist Charles Tilly (1999) pointed out that “the employment of invariant models…assumes a political world in which whole structures and sequences repeat themselves time after time in essentially the same form. That would be a convenient world for theorists, but it does not exist” (as quoted in Giugni, 1999, p. xxv). Thus, while the analytic uses of the four stages may work to an extent, it is also important consider that each movement is responding to specific social conditions that affect the outcome and development of the social movement. Conclusion
Social movements continue to be a major force in the world. Sociologists provide important analysis of social movements that helps us to understand both past and present societies, as well as to anticipate changes and trends that may play out in the future. As new movements develop, they can learn from the investigation of prior movements’ experience to better prepare for future possibilities. The model of analysis provided by the theory of the four stages of social movements is an important aspect in the development of knowledge about collective action. As social movements continue to change, so too do the methods sociologists use in analyzing them. Examining the four stages of social movements is one way of understanding how social movements form, develop, solidify, and decline. The model can be seen as one of many tools that sociologists use in examining our world.
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