Essay on Unit 1 Course Project Part 1

Subject: Communication
Topic: Unit 1 Course Project Part 1: Informative Speech Outline
Employee engagement and success

Preparing a strong outline is one of the keys for a successful presentation. Outlines should include several major elements:

Introduction, body, and conclusion
A thesis statement
The main points you will use to support your thesis statement
The way you will organize your ideas throughout the speech
The transitions you will use to move from one idea to another throughout the presentation
A strong conclusion
Any references that will be used in the presentation.
Additionally, by helping you to have the content organized for your speech, the outline will allow you to focus more time on delivering the presentation.

Your project assignment for the first unit of the course is to develop an outline for your informative speech. The outline is due in unit 1 and the speech is due in unit 4. Your speech is required to be between 4–7 minutes in length, contain at least one visual element/aid and include at least two credible resources.

Click here to download an Informative Speech Outline TemplatePreview the document that you can use as a guideline for creating your own speech outline. Save the file with your own information and submit the file for grading.How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears A sociopolitical history of zombies, from Haiti to The Walking Dead. By Zachary Crockett and Javier Zarracina Oct 31, 2016, 10:40am EDT
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 2/19
A depiction of Felicia Felix-Mentor, a Haitian “zombie” reported to be real in the 1930s.
Though various concepts of the dead rising date back thousands of years in many different cultural variations, the American depiction of the zombie was borrowed from 19th-century Haitian voodooism.
The rural Haitian spiritual belief system — which was largely formulated by the millions of West African slaves the French brought to the country in the 17th century — held that those who died from an unnatural cause like murder would “linger” at their graves. During this time, the corpse would be susceptible to being revived by a bokor, or witch doctor, who would keep it as a personal slave, granting it no agency. The Haitians called this creature — suspended in some ambiguous state between life and death — a zombi.
After staging a successful slave rebellion and gaining independence from France in 1804, Haiti was demonized by the Western world as a threat to imperialism. Voodoo culture was perceived to be a signifier of the country’s “savage inferiority” — and when the United States occupied Haiti in 1915, Catholic missionaries set out to dismantle it.
It was during this occupation that an American by the name of William Seabrook was made aware of the zombi.
| Javier Zarracina/Vox
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 3/19
Voodoo practitioners in Haiti (circa 1860s).
While researching voodoo in Port-au-Prince, Seabrook was taken to the Haitian American Sugar Company, where he was introduced to four “zombies.” In a late 1920s text, he recounted the moment:
“The supposed zombies continued dumbly at work. They were plodding like brutes, like automatons. The eyes were the worst. … They were in truth like the eyes of a dead man, not blind but staring, unfocused, unseeing.”
The catatonic beings before Seabrook’s eyes were most certainly slaves employed by American manufacturers, made to work 18-hour shifts and living in squalid conditions. But Seabrook, ignorant to this, sensationalized the account in his 1929 book The Magic Island — and in doing so, exposed America to the zombie.
The first zombie film — White Zombie (1932) — was released at the onset of the American horror movie genre, just one year after Dracula and Frankenstein. Largely based on Seabrook’s accounts, it came out at the tail end of the Haitian occupation.
In the film, a white couple visits Haiti, where they plan to get married. A plantation owner falls in love with the woman and, enlisting the help of a voodoo master, transforms the woman into a zombie. A dastardly plot ensues, involving multiple “zombifications” at the hands of evil Haitians — but in the end, the white couple emerges unharmed, and the voodoo master is pushed off a cliff to his death.
White Zombie explicitly stoked America’s worst fears of voodooism and turned the spiritual belief system into a horror motif. Haiti is presented as a primitive, orderless place where witchcraft and zombies run rampant. The ultimate tradition of Western religion, marriage, is savaged by the dark magic of the uncivilized world.
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 4/19
A scene from White Zombie (1932), illustrated by Vox.
The film was a box office success, sparking a slew of similar, voodoo-fear-inducing zombie films in the 1930s and ’40s.
In Ouanga (1936), a female Haitian plantation owner falls in love with a white man and uses voodoo to conjure two black zombies, who capture the man’s fiancée for a sacrificial voodoo ceremony. Her plan eventually fails, and she is strangled to death by a “noble” black servant. I Walked With a Zombie (1943), which features a white nurse who goes to the Caribbean and has a series of wildly primitive hallucinations about zombies, explores the psychological fears of voodoo.
Until the 1940s, zombies were largely a reflection of the fears of voodooism and blackness. But as the political landscape of America shifted, the creatures soon acquired new symbolism.
The atomic zombie: fear of nuclear extinction and the Red Scare
| Javier Zarracina/Vox
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 5/19
A scene from Plan 9 From Outer Space (1959), illustrated by Vox.
By 1940, the zombie had staggered from a little-known piece of Haitian folklore to a widespread cultural phenomenon in America. Zombies were the créature du jour in big band songs, radio programs, and nightclub routines. At the 1939 World’s Fair in New York, the “Zombie” — a cocktail made with rum (and sugarcane tilled by Haitian slaves) — was a huge hit.
It was also a time of great fear: World War II was emerging, and would bring with it mass genocide, atomic warfare, and the threat of communist dictatorships. The ensuing Cold War reinvigorated anxieties over Soviet communism and scientific advancements, like the space race.
Zombies became an integral part of how Americans grappled with these fears.
At first, we see fears of voodoo and espionage clash in zombie films. In King of the Zombies (1941), a pilot crashes in the Caribbean and comes across a foreign spy who is using zombies to coax war intelligence from a US admiral. Likewise, in Revenge of the Zombies (1943), an evil doctor creates an army of Nazi zombies to ensure a German victory.
| Javier Zarracina/Vox
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 6/19
Creature With the Atom Brain (1959) claimed to be “based on scientific facts” in promotional materials.
But following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 and the first Soviet atomic bomb test in 1949, American fears of nuclear radiation and communism began to manifest in zombies.
The comic Corpses: Coast to Coast, published in a 1954 issue of Voodoo, is a prime example of this.
In the strip, gravediggers form a union and go on strike, causing a massive buildup of unburied corpses. A Soviet communist then sends the corpses through an “indoctrination tank” (which mutates them into zombies), and forms a coalition called United World Zombies (U.W.Z.). One by one, U.W.Z. takes over the White House, the United States, Europe, and the world. But the entire uprising is ultimately quelled by an atomic bomb: “Zombie tissue doesn’t stand up well to radiation!” the comic’s antagonist yells out in the final panels.
We see similar plots play out in Hollywood’s zombie films. Creature With the Atom Brain (1955), features an ex-Nazi scientist named Wilhelm using radiation to reanimate corpses. In Teenage Zombies (1960), a “scientist from the East” intends to zombify everyone in the United States using an experimental gas.
| IMDB
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 7/19
Corpses … Cost to Coast (1954) tells the story of a socialist zombie uprising.
All the while, the Soviet Union was winning the space race: In 1957 it launched Sputnik, (the world’s first artificial satellite), and in 1961 it sent the first human into space. Zombies were used as a mode of expressing Americans’ fears of losing ground in the space frontier — and the fear of space itself.
Zombies of the Stratosphere (1952) revolves around an evil alien force that steals atomic bomb plans from the Soviets, with the intention of using its force to swap orbital positions with Earth. In Plan 9 From Outer Space (1959), benevolent aliens resurrect a human zombie force and use it to stop the development of a sun-powered mega bomb. The Earth Dies Screaming (1964) features a bulletproof alien force that uses a strange gas to obliterate mankind, then animates corpses with radio signals.
By the mid- to late 1960s, new turmoil emerged in the United States, and with it, the modern zombie was born.
The apocalypse zombie: a response to civil rights and the Vietnam War
| Via The Horrors of It All
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 8/19
A scene from Night of the Living Dead (1968), illustrated by Vox.
The 1960s — rife with assassinations, the civil rights movement, the Vietnam War, and counterculture rebellion — were among American history’s most turbulent years.
In the midst of it all came a movie that entirely changed the zombie film as we know it: Night of the Living Dead.
George Romero’s 1968 epic begins with a young woman named Barbara arriving at a cemetery to lay a wreath on her grandfather’s grave. A zombie stumbles forth, and she runs through the countryside, taking refuge in a farmhouse. Here, she encounters a young black man named Ben and a small group of other survivors. Ben avoids an onslaught of hundreds of zombies and emerges as the house’s sole survivor, only to be shot and killed in the final scene by a white Southern police officer.
Released just five months after Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination, Night of the Living Dead teems with political undertones that address the nation’s turbulent race relations.
Racially charged interactions are woven throughout the film — mainly between Ben and Harry, a white authoritarian whose power is increasingly threatened. When Tom, a young idealist in the group, interjects with the line, “We’d all be a lot better off if all three of us were working together,” he is largely ignored.
The closing credits of the film are a series of still, grainy images, in which a mob of white Southerners puncture Ben’s lifeless body with meat hooks, then pose for photos. As the final shot fixates on a raging fire reminiscent of a Ku Klux Klan ritual, we hear the sound of barking police dogs echo in the distance.
| Javier Zarracina/Vox
9/21/2020 How the zombie represents America’s deepest fears – Vox
https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/10/31/13440402/zombie-political-history 9/19
The closing credits of Night of the Living Dead mimic the Jim Crow–era lynchings of black Americans.
“The film was a direct response to cultural events,” says Roger Luckhurst, author of Zombies: A Cultural History. “It was shown to inner-city, mostly black youth, and paired as a double feature with Slaves (1969) — a film about an 1850s slave rebellion. It was shown in Greenwich Village among radical student groups, and was showcased in the Museum of Modern Art in New York as a form of political filmmaking.”
Night of the Living Dead was also revolutionary in that it was the first prominent film to feature vast hordes of zombies (in the film, they are referred to as “ghouls”), as opposed to an isolated few — and to use those hordes as a symbol of an impending apocalypse.
For the first time, many Americans were being exposed to the wide-scale horrors of war. Graphic video footage of the Tet Offensive (1968) and piles of dead bodies were routinely broadcast. The “massification” of the zombie in Romero’s film is a nod to this.
Toward the end of the film, in a television broadcast, the anchor reports that a “search and destroy” method will be used to take down the zombies. This seems to be a reference to the method employed by US troops against the Viet Cong — a method that used “body count” to measure the success of an attack, rather than strategic efficiency.

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