Subject: Political science
Essay in Chicago style citation, with footnotes, 28 pages, at least 275 words per page, and a minimum of 25 references. You may use up to 3 references per page and no fewer than 275 words per page. You may also use any additional academic materials or recommendations related to the subject. All academic work is expected to be free of grammar, usage, and style errors and must be original. Please, use the present tense most of the time instead of the past participle tense. Also, use a more active voice instead of passive voice and American English.
You may also use any supplementary learning materials or references related to the subject. Also, you may make minor changes to the subheadings below for the finished document to read smoothly. Please, make a robust and logical argument while discussing the Historical Background of Political Islam, its Concepts and Frameworks. Discuss Islamic dynasties after the death of Fourth Caliph, Ali Ibn Talib from Mu’awiyah, his children inheriting power and the succeeding dynasties and their use of Islam for political gain. Discuss and present a compelling argument on the primary reasons and contributing factors for The Rise of the Muslim Political Violence from the 19th and 21st Centuries and link to Afghanistan and Iraqs invasion. And please, incorporate these subheadings below in your writing, and you may make minor changes as you see it fit to smooth the consistent flow of the research:
Historical Background of Political Islam, its Concepts and Frameworks. 5 pages
The Influence of Maududi, Qutb, and Khomeini in Modern Political Islam. 6 pages
Radical Interpretation of Quranic Verses by Islamist Militants for Political Gain. 4 pages
Aspirations and Activities of the Islamist Militants. 4 pages
The Connection between Political Islam and Muslim Militancy. 4 pages
Lessons Learned and the path forward to Countering Political Islam. 4 pages
Conclusion. 1 page
Or divide the pages as you see it it.
Historically, Muslim intellectuals suggest that extremist interpretation of the Quran for political gain within Islam dated back to the Kharijites group who appeared in the 7th century Common Era. The Kharijites established dangerous dogmas that distinguished them from both orthodox Sunni and Shia Muslims from their fundamentally political stance. The Kharijites as a group were predominantly renowned for espousing a deep-seated approach to takfir, through which they professed that other Muslims were disbelievers; hence, their blood can be shaded without recourse. Additionally, the succeeding Muslim dynasties came to power using Islam as an umbrella to gain political leverage and interpreted the Quran to suit their political aspirations.
In essence, political Islamism is an ideology of resentment directed toward a prevailing order. So long as the political order remains closed, the militant insurgents will have a place in society. Their defiance of the oppressive order and their criticism of the stagnant autocratic rule will resonate with a populace segment.
For over six decades, a rebirth of an ideological movement called Islamism has been at war with the West. Over these decades, militant groups under the pretext of establishing the Caliphate, which in their mind is connected with an idealized Muslim past. The Militant groups have made worldwide headlines – on various occasions – due to their malicious terrorist attacks on the West in general and predominantly against Muslims whom they deemed opposing to their dogmas.
The rise of Political Islamists and militant groups in various parts of the Muslim world from South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the North African, the Sahel, Sub-Saharan, Horn of Africa, Europe, and Australia pose alarming threats to the global security and, more so, regional stability. These militants appeal stems from their ability to tap into and persuade marginalized communities, particularly youth, that their grievances can be rectified by establishing a more pure Islamist culture.
Justifications given for attacks on civilians by Islamic extremist groups come from extreme interpretations of the Quran and Hadith, and Islamic law. These include retribution by armed jihad for the perceived injustices of unbelievers against Muslims (especially by Al-Qaeda); the belief that the killing of many self-proclaimed Muslims is required because they have violated Islamic law and are actually disbelievers (kafir); the need to restore and purify Islam by establishing sharia law, especially by restoring the Caliphate as a pan-Islamic state (especially ISIS); the glory and heavenly rewards of martyrdom; the supremacy of Islam over all other religions.[Note 1].
26 “Another battle with Islams true believers.” The Globe and Mail.
27 Mohamad Jebara More Mohamad Jebara. “Imam Mohamad Jebara: Fruits of the tree of extremism.” Ottawa Citizen.
Profile: Sheikh Mahmud Shaltut, the reformist head of Al-Azhar University
Sheikh Mahmud Shaltut, the reformist head of Al-Azhar University [Wikipedia]
April 23, 2020 at 10:25 am
Sheikh Mahmud Shaltut was a renowned Muslim scholar, reformer and rector of the esteemed Al-Azhar University in Cairo who was notable for seeking to bridge the gap in the Sunni-Shia divide and modernising Al-Azhar’s establishment. From humble beginnings, he was born on 23 April 1893 in a farming village in the Buhayra Governorate of Lower Egypt.
In 1906, having memorised the Qur’an by heart, the teenage Shaltut was enrolled for his primary and secondary education at the new Religious Institute of Alexandria, which was affiliated to Al-Azhar, where he was consistently top of his class. Twelve years later he graduated from the prestigious institution in the capital with his Alimiyah degree, obtaining the highest marks in his year group. The following year, he was appointed to teach at the Alexandria Institute, where he was also active in publishing articles on the religious sciences. It was in 1927, aged 34, that he was transferred to a teaching post at Al-Azhar’s Higher Division.
Decline of Egypt’s religious institutions
In order to appreciate Sheikh Shaltut’s achievements in his later career, it is important to have some historical context. During the early 19th century, the Egyptian Ulema (Islamic scholars) and their institutions fell into economic neglect and social irrelevance due in part to measures introduced by Ottoman governor Muhammad Ali who imposed a tax on the waqf (religious endowment) revenues administered by the Ulema. Al-Azhar also fell into a state of decline during this period. This led to the emergence to prominence of an intellectual class of modernist Muslim thinkers. Having managed to survive these challenges, as other institutions ceased to exist, Al-Azhar and its Ulema became the centralised religious establishment, before developing into a modern university.
After the defeat and disintegration of the Ottoman Empire — the Islamic Caliphate — following World War One, Ottoman Ulema were no longer the highest authority in the Sunni Muslim world. This void would be filled by Al-Azhar, largely unchallenged until the mid-20th century when the Wahhabi establishment in Saudi Arabia gained more prominence and influence, spread with the support of the Kingdom’s oil wealth. Competition in religious leadership in the wider Islamic world would also emerge after the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Shia-majority Iran.
Appointment as Sheikh of Al-Azhar
Sheikh Shaltut was keen on reformist ideas and was said to be a disciple of the prominent Muslim modernist intellectuals of his era, Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida, both of whom would have had an influence on him. One of Shaltut’s predecessors as Grand Imam — or Sheikh of Al-Azhar — was Sheikh Mustafa Al-Maraghi, who was appointed to the position in 1928, a year after Shaltut became a teacher at the Higher Division. Maraghi was also a proponent of reform at Al-Azhar and Shaltut was openly supportive of him. However, his ideas were seen as too radical and faced opposition; Maraghi resigned after a year. Due to his own reformist inclinations, Shaltut himself was dismissed along with several others in 1931. He then worked as a lawyer in the Shari’ah courts, while also publishing his views.
Upon Maraghi’s return to the position as head of Al-Azhar in 1935, Shaltut was made Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Law, before working his way up to higher positions. Following a presidential decree, he was appointed to the position of Vice-Rector in 1957, becoming Sheikh of Al-Azhar on 9 November 1958. He was 65 years old.
It wasn’t long after Sheikh Shaltut’s appointment as head of Al-Azhar that he announced his vision for reform. He believed that Islamic law was compatible with contemporary times and was also determined to see Al-Azhar shift away from state control. A monumental achievement of his was to work towards having the Reform Law passed in 1961. This piece of legislation ensured that the Al-Azhar would no longer be just a theological institution, but also a modern university in its own right integrated into the wider field of higher education in Egypt.
Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt on 1st July 2011 [Daniel Mayer/Wikipedia]
As Sheikh of Al-Azhar, Shaltut was involved in several academic committees, including those which dealt with the secular sciences. As a precursor to contemporary Islamic Q&A television programmes and websites, his morning radio broadcasts, during which he answered questions on religious topics from the public, proved to be highly popular and enhanced his reputation.
Era of tolerance and the “Shia Fatwa”
Sheikh Shaltut was active in intra-faith dialogue, having corresponded with many prominent contemporary Shia Ulema such as Muhammad Al-Husayn Al-Kashif Al-Ghita from Iraq, Sharaf Al-Din Al-Musawi in Lebanon and Iran’s Grand Ayatollah Hossein Borujerdi.
Back in 1948 Shaltut and other scholars were involved in the founding of Jamat Al-Taqrib Bayna Al-Madhahib (The Society for Bringing Together the Schools of Law) in reference to the main Islamic schools of jurisprudence; he was a leading scholar of the Hanafi School. The idea behind the initiative was to bring the Sunni and Shia Muslims together, and increase mutual understanding and tolerance in order to counter religious fanaticism.
This undoubtedly reached its zenith with Shaltut’s PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH USA ELITE WRITERS TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT