Student Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Adult English Language Learners (ELLs) with Limited Literacy: challenges and solutions. This proposal researches on the challenges and their solutions to students with limited literacy and teachers of the Adult English Language Learners (ELLs). The ELLs passes a lot of challenges as most of them are the newcomers, still, their teachers face challenges on which they need solutions. There has been a lot of challenges which faces this program, one of the challenges is if there are adequate resources, which may help improve this program (Abrar, 2016). Still, there has been an issue cornering many languages or bilingual spoke in the class which may affect the achievements of these students. Still, there have been some students who may have previous trauma or psychological problems which may affect their current learning. Furthermore, there is a proposal of which the teachers should come up with a way of ensuring enough resources in the classes to help to improve their achievements. And lastly, the teachers should start controlling the students in a positive manner, may help boost their achievements. Every nation is now increasing its focus on this development of education, the main stakeholders, however, are the one supposed to come up with some reforms which will help to improve the schools and the courses. One of the most important strategies is getting fulcrum teachers who will help in recognizing and helping in coming up with a tip in order to progress in their success. This types of strategies will help improve the production of students such as those who have limited literacy when leaning he Adult ELLs. Adult ELL s with limited literacy have suffered a lot when it comes to learning formal education, more so when it comes to learning the English language. Still the other stakeholder, who are the educators and the policymakers, still have been affected with this challenges, in which they struggle a lot to having strategies which will help the adults in learning English. This research paper will mostly focus on, literacy development in adults, language acquisition, cognition, and brain functioning, adult education, and professional development. There is limited research base which covers ore about the Adults ELL s who have limited literacy. However, these researches have not expounded much on what can be done to improve this sector of education. These special group of learners have been advocated in the use of programs and having of the special class apart from the general classes. The educators still need learners culture influences and the experience these people have when it comes to formal education. Most cases the best program to include is the use of PD which will help to get attention on their backgrounds, needs, and strength. The best thing which may come up with the conditions is more engagement of the teachers and the students. The teacher needs to impose a positive support to the child such as the teacher disusing each student results separately. The program also needs to be funded well, in which their classes would be filled with adequate resources to bring a successful result. The teachers also need to come up with counseling programs which help improve and also solve the challenges faced by both stakeholders. This will help discuss the past of the students, and even ease the way teacher handles some of the students. Which may be special than the rest.
Research Question What are the challenges and solutions, from students’ and teachers’ perspectives to acquiring academic language literacy skills for Adult English Language Learners (ELLs)?
Literature Review A research form one of the articles stresses that one of the problems in learning English is learning it as a second language. The authors suggest that there is the existence of many changes when learning a foreign language, as this is seen struggled by the student. The research by this article studied a chines woman who was learning English as her second language. The article described very well in which the learner was able to solve the problem by herself, in which means the student was well engaged an learned about her past which will help the educator in understanding her. The student’s first priority was giving the second language a priory in which she would engage more often in covering in the English language. The author also, emphasized on the student engaging in practicing the language and having a quality teaching which will help improve the leaning of English. The author also insisted on giving the student attention, on which gave the student the motivation to learn more (Wold, 2006). The article showcases that when a student is well engaged, the student treating each student in a special way will help the student learn to include both internal and external factors when it comes to learning. In another article by Turkan et al. (2012), discusses the effective practices which will help improve the students engaging in ELL. The research showcase that the students needed prolific teachers who are competent in the English language, even to other subjects. The article thinks that the teachers will have a perfect knowledge of literacy skills in ELL s. This will help the students in using their native language into processing h new language. Still, the passage suggests the teachers involved in the teaching should have a mastery in academic vocabulary. To be more specific the teacher should be able to educate the students in engaging ELL in all activities they do at school and still, the student is advised to learn through their everyday experience in learning English. The article also emphasized the guiding the students through metacognitive reading, a tool which may help the educators in observing students comprehension of text whenever there is a correction needed. Still, Turkan et al. (2012)suggested that the native language may affect the learning of the new language. However, this could be resolved if the teacher identifies the mistakes and corrects where possible. The teachers may involve the use of word and recognition and phonological in reading skills which may help to perfect their English language (Sultan Turkan, 2012). The students still may be engaged in the sentences memorizing which will help understand the English language. Batt (2008)the author argues on the teacher being devolved in a professional manner which will help solve the challenges faced while teaching the ELL students. Batt thinks that when cultural awareness is taken into care will help a lot on improving the ELL learning. In contrary Gomez and Diarrassouba (2014) opposes, on which they purport their study through a survey conducted on teachers. From their study, the teachers claimed that cultural awareness is not an efficient tool in benefiting ELL literary. From this argument, the teacher thought of the professional development which is the best strategy in solving ELL challenges. Wold (2006) in his study on difficulties in learning English as a second language. Suggest that the adults need to be entitled to the Adult Learning Themes, in which the education should comfortable without pressure, interesting materials and also the classrooms and the schools should be set like a community. The professional teachers should underhand the adult theme, such as the adults always requires slower instructions as compared to children, more so the cognitive ability. Ryan (2006), think distance learning can be a challenge when it comes to gaining proficiency in English. The article argues that the classes should offer Lowe rates as compared to other with high proficiency. The author argues that distance learning will prevent them from gaining proficiency as people with low proficiency has a low probability of asking questions. “When adults with low levels of education attend ABE classes, they advance more slowly because they must acclimate to the school setting in addition to the new language.”(Elizabeth & Ryan) Method My research participants will be the students and teachers at the English Language Institute (ELI). As my aim was to explore both the teachers and the students in ELL. In order to achieve my purpose of the study, I would recruit the qualitative research. In which I also I would employ phenomenological approach. My main stakeholder would be the teachers and the students experiencing the challenges, mostly I focused on adults, more so the one with low literacy. In order to conduct both interview protocol and the use of memos to the English Language Institute. First I will require a consent from the head of studies, in order to be able to conduct my survey. My main aim is getting the experience behind the stakeholders’ participant ion in the learning. I will use the interview as my main form of gathering my data. My form of consent will be “Statement of What the Study Will Ask the Participant to Do or Have Done to Him/Her.” This method is the best as the question will be either directed to either the students or the teachers. My main aim is the Adult ELLs with low literacy proficiency and their teachers. The method was the best as the research is about the Adult ELLs, the challenges they have and the solution they think can solve these challenges. Most of the information is accessible to me, as I will go to ELI where all my participants will be available. I would use Survey as my way of analyzing my data. This is the best tool as it was asking information from the main stakeholder being affected. A variety of questions would be used in the interview, each inset in such a way that it will offer some importance to the study. The questions will be organized under different thematic areas, including the challenges and the solutions, with the participants answering questions in turns depending on if they are directed to the students or the teachers as provided at the appendixes. The interview will be conducted on free time according to the school schedule, the time which was convenient for both participants. From the information which will be given, it will be possible to analyze what they want to be changed, what they expect in order to improve the adult ELLs. I will use memos and questionnaire to both the teachers and the students. The memos took about thirty minutes. Using of memos was a quick way to gather information as the teachers were busy, hence at their own time they were able to reply to my questionnaire interview. I think the data collection and analysis I would is the best, as it will fair, gave confidence to the participants and is very objective to my research. The interview followed the school protocol on equality and diversity policy, in order to prevent discrimination. Discussion The interview through memo was conducted, which explored the challenges and possible solution about the Adult ELLs with low proficiency. From the collection of ted at there were two main themes which emerged, the main changes being the culture while the possible solution to their challenges is changing in techniques approaches. Culture as a Major Challenge From the study, the culture prevailed being the major issue to the learning of the Adult ELLs. The students and even the scholars believed that the culture limited their ability in learning the language. Coming from a driftnet lingua came with a different culture from that of English language, hence preventing the form acquiring key concepts of learning English. In the 2006-2007 (Cong, 2012) about half of the adults enrolled in the adult education program English was their second language. These students are various characters in which some of the students may enroll in a class without any formal education, some even have learning disabilities, and with lack of a knowledge. Most schools or learning institutions may lack, to test the newcomers to know their background with formal or any knowledge in education. The lack of testing mostly is caused by the language barriers making an issue in communication. Therefore, this can present something which is out of control to the teachers, the dynamics and individual reasons, making the teachers not able to counter. These students are from a different cultural background and ethnic groups. They speak a different language while other have their form of arranging alphabetical systems. These adults are then set to learn with the people who are proficiently in alphabetic print literacy. Furthermore, there are those immigrant adult students who are stereotyped when it comes to learning the English language. The Chinese and the Asians immigrant are the one super stereotyped, in which many Americans believe of them being academics giants (Cong, 2012). However, many of them are lagging down due to culture stereotype, and access to limited English proficiency. Immigrants such as the Chinese have a difference in education, such as learning styles. In their original home, the Chinese are well equipped with the teacher-centered classrooms. However, in the US they face another they, which is student-centered, student-teacher centered and student-student learning interactions. This showcases the cultural discourse in their primary home and their secondary home, bringing a challenge to some of the Adult ELLs. This discourse is brought by indifference in language literacy beliefs and also how they interact. The students need to be an inconsistency with the school literacy discourse, however, the one with non-mainstream home culture may have to adopt a new one which may lead to difficulty. Furthermore, most of the Adult ELLs proficient with English comes from rich families and culture, however there the immigrant who mostly has low proficiency comes from poor background. Therefore the rich adults may have access to many learning material and tutors, while their poor counterpart will be unable to purchase the learning resources. Many of the proficient in English are able to learn English from other people, either by socializing, or even from their family, but the majority of the low proficiency are immigrants, who have no family members or social class to mingle and learn English. The culture plays a vital role in learning English. Most of the immigrants’ culture is always not in favor of modern education, which has made a lot of them struggle into coping with the new technique of learning. Therefore, on looking at these culture problems, it will help solves most of the problems concerning the adult ELLs. Most of the Adult ELLs being immigrants differ when it comes to cultural background, hence they have a possibility of facing different changes in learning. However there are factors, however, based on culture which play a role in immigrant education, such as cultural stereotypes. Different approaches Technique as the Major Solution The participants had different techniques which can be employed in solving their main challenges. The learning of English requires a lot of skills such as vocabulary, reading comprehension, fluency and alphabetic. Therefore this needs techniques which need to be employed in order to assert elective progress on the Adult ELLs. Khaijloo (2013)at his Problems in Teaching and Learning English for Students he argues that time is a factor, the teacher thinks that they are not given enough time to revising their curriculum and strategies. The students also become unmotivated, while loaded with a bulk of course works, making it a change in learning English. More so the students may also build up a lack of interest and see the language as a boring subject (Khajloo, 2013). The children may become tired which may bring lack of concentration among the adults. The author suggests if the issue of fatigue is eliminated it will boost the learning of English among the students. The author also emphasis on the form of teaching in which the teacher should develop a special way to treat each student, to help boost their performance. Raja & Selvi (2011), in their article, suggests that the government should be involved in setting down the issue on ELL. The government hold is holding in-service training, in which the teachers would be taught how to use the English language in all courses. The schools sound also bring reform such as including the spoken language in the examination marks. The encouragement, still should be involved, in which these students with low literacy should be rewarded when they perform better (SELVI, 2011). The article is seen to an emphasis on the reading and practicing English more often in the classrooms which will improve their experience. Still, the article is an emphasis on teachers supervision in which the management should be involved in motivating and engaging in coming up with new programs which help to learn of English language easier. ELL needs time and practice to learn and improve in the English language. English is more acquired than being rushed, however, English can be practiced when learning. Making the immigrants’ students learn the current system such student-student learning centers may require the student to sue the language in communicating and giving concept, hence gaining of the experience. The other problem-basing technique is also of good benefit to ELL. The techniques offer a well understanding of the linguistics, in which the students tend to feel free and interact with others students, and still make the student more motivated. Therefore the administration and the teacher are the main stakeholders in truing the Adult ELLs to being learnable. They need to sour and important it in the classrooms for the better outcome. References Abrar, M. (2016). 94 TEACHING ENGLISH PROBLEMS: AN ANALYSIS OF EFL PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KUALA TUNGKAL. Research Gate, 92-100. Batt, E. G. (2008). Teachers’ Perceptions of ELL Education: Potential Solutions to Overcome the Greatest Challenges. Multicultural education, 15(3), 39-43. Cong, A. D.-A. (2012). How Culture Affects on English Language Learners’ (ELL’s) Outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3, 174-8. Gomez, M. N., & Diarrassouba, N. (2014). What Do Teachers Need to Support English Learners?. English language teaching, 7(5), 89-101. Khajloo, A. I. (2013). Problems in Teaching and Learning English for Student. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 56-58. SELVI, B. W. (2011). CAUSES OF PROBLEMS IN LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AS PERCEIVED BY HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS . i-manager’s Journal on English Language Teaching, 1, 40-44. Ryan, A. E. F. (2016). How can obstacles to adult English Language Learners with low levels of English proficiency participating in distance learning be reduced?. Sultan Turkan, J. B. (2012). Effective Practices for Developing Literacy Skills of English Language Learners in the English Language Arts Classroom. ETS, 9-30. Wold, J. B. (2006). Difficulties in Learning English As a Second Or Foreign Language. ePublications at Regis University, 52.
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