After watching the lecture video and the additional resources (Week 12 Videos and Resources), please share your thoughts on these. What stood out to you? What did you already know before? What do you want to find out more about? Also, please visit https://www.ed-data.org/ (Links to an external site.) and find information on a school to share
Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development
Building on Theory: Piaget (part 1)
Concrete operational thought: Ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.
Horizontal décalage: Certain concepts appear in sequence over time at each level.
Hierarchy of categories
Vygotsky and Culture part 1)
Role of instruction
Information processing (part1)
Like computers, people sense and perceive large amounts of information
Evidence of theory’s usefulness
Memory (p 1)
Sensory memory (sensory register ) : Component of the information processing system in which incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed .
Working memory (short-term memory ): Component of the information processing system in which current , conscious mental activity occurs .
Long-term memory : Component of the information processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely .
Working memory improves steadily and significantly.
Long- term memory capacity is virtually limitless by the end of middle childhood .
Memory storage expands over childhood , but retrieval is more important.
As the prefrontal cortex matures , children are better able to use strategies.
Information processing part3
Extensive knowledge base makes it easier to master new, related information.
Control processes (neurological mechanisms )
Language e(part 1)
By age 6 , children
In middle childhood
School-age children comprehend and enjoy
Learning in School: Context
Adjusting vocabulary to the context
Speaking Two Languages (part
.Code changes are obvious when children speak one language at home and another at school.
Speaking Two Languages (part 3)
Language learning depends on
Differences in Language Learning
Common mistakes in detecting language learning difficulties
Social Factors and Language Gap
low -SES families : Smaller vocabularies , simpler vocabularies, shorter sentences.
Hippocampus development : e.g., inadequate prenatal care, no breakfast, lead, crowded housing , neighborhood violence.
Home language, mother’s education , books.
Teaching and Learning
Over the past two decades , more than 50 nations have participated in at least one massive international test of educational achievement .
. International Achievement Test Scores
What Do These Rankings Reveal?
National and cultural contexts affect scores
A Word on Ethnic Diversity
As of 2014 in the United States, the nation’s public schools have become “majority minority”
In middle childhood, every child develops cognitively with specifics dependent far more on individual, particular experiences than on ethnic background.
Children are ready to learn whatever their social context teaches them.
Barring severe impairment, all school-age children can learn a second language , become skilled in math , reading, and writing if taught logically , step-by-step .
Schooling in the United States
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP )
Ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. children’s achievement in reading , mathematics , and other subjects over time, and is nicknamed “the Nation’s Report Card ”
Common Core of standards ( 10)
Standards, more rigorous than most state standards, are quite explicit, with half a dozen or more specific expectations for achievement in each subject for each grade; adopted by 44 states in 2013. 2018
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