Population under study

Description

there are contents and reference need to edit and add, please read the instructions and documents provided carefully. I made the installation by using the red highlight for the content which needs to edit and add.

 

  1. Please frame a research question in PICO(T) format and justify in a few short

sentences why you have chosen each element of PICO(T).

 

Population under study: E.Coli gramnegative BSIs patients in all National Health Service hospitals across the NSW by reviewing local surveillance activity.

 

Need explanation:

 

Intervention (Exposure or study factor ): Healthcare exposure before the E. coli bacteraemia onset.

 

Need explanation:

 

Comparison group (unexposed group): No healthcare admission before the E. coli bacteraemia onset.

 

Need explanation:

 

Outcome (or disease): Timing of E. coli bacteraemia infection onset after healthcare admission.

 

Need explanation:

 

Time: 0-2 days after healthcare admission, 3-5 days ager healthcare admission, <= 6 days after healthcare admission.

 

Need explanation:

 

This study is aiming to investigate the risk of E. coli bacteraemia infection in patients who had healthcare interaction prior to the symptom onset compare with no healthcare admission prior to the symptom onset. Data will collected by reviewing local surveillance activity of E.coli gram-negative BSIs patients in all National Health Service hospitals across the NSW.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the research question the SR is trying to answer?
  2. Identify the PICO(T) elements of the research question in your answer

 

Population under study: Older adults in hospital or community care settings.

Intervention (or Exposure / study factor): All behavioural interventions.

Comparison group (unexposed group): None specified

Outcome (or disease): Symptomatic UTI and E. coli bacteraemia.

 

  1. Does the SR try to assess the methodological quality of primary studies and take these into account where necessary?

 

Yes, the SR is trying to assess the methodological quality of primary studies. However, there were no methodological quality found in the final 21 studies. In the result section of systematic review, the author listed different interventions in which characterized by methodological order. For example, There are total of seven paper about Multi-faceted interventions which divided by end result of “Multi-faceted interventions with statements of significance” and “Multi-faceted interventions without statements of significance”. In each results, the author assessed the methodological qualities respectively:

 

“There is low-quality evidence from five before-and-after studies, and one RCT for the effectiveness of multi-faceted interventions that use audits”.

 

It is important to take methodological quality into account when writing a systematic review. Methodology is the key to prove that whether the experiment is feasible or not. An authentic experiment design would arrange various experimental factors reasonably and strictly control experimental errors in order to obtain reliable information. Therefore, by evaluate the quality of each methodologies, the author could allocate the weight base on authenticity.

 

Pease edit and add intext citation

 

 

  1. Does the SR discuss the reasons for any variations/heterogeneity between individual studies/overall results?

 

Yes, the SR discussed the reasons for variations under “Result” and “discussion” section. The author suggest that when comparing with the overall results, a portion of studies does not met “the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) cohort guideline criteria”. When analyzing the individual results, variables such as possible contamination, lack of confounding factors results and lack of random allocation are the biases for overall results.

 

“The heterogeneity of interventions and results, and their low quality, mean that it is not possible to recommend one effective simple or complex intervention”.

Pease edit and add intext citation

 

  1. Does the SR report on the clinical relevance/importance of the results?

 

Yes, the author conclude that the report is not clinical significant because of the limited simple size and specimen taken, none of the studies has determined E. coli bacteraemias is the primary result. Therefore, in overall results, there is no single or complex intervention recommend. However, the SR have demonstrated various interventions which are considerable for preventing E. coli bacteraemia infection.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What was the major aim(s) of the study?

 

The major aim of the study is to determine the factors associated with the use of IUCs based on an inappropriate indication in order to reduce the placement of IUCs without a specific medical indication.

 

Pease check and edit

 

  1. What were the primary and secondary outcomes?

 

Primary outcome: age, gender, medical ward, and surgery are the factors which associated with inappropriate use of IUCs in both the univariate and multivariate models.

 

Secondary outcomes: There are evidence shows inappropriate use of IUC have been conducted in Dutch hospitals. The author also demonstrate the high risk group for catheterization without a proper medical indication which are women elders and non-surgical patients. Bundle for UTI may reduce the inappropriate use of IUCs, education for IUCs should be carrying out in medical staff.

 

Pease edit and add intext citation

 

 

 

  1. What type of study design was employed?

 

The authors used analytic cross-sectional study design which collecting data from national prevalence surveys. Mann–Whitney-U test and the Chi-square test and multilevel logistic regression models were used in the study.

 

Pease edit maybe add some contents

 

 

  1. What is an alternative study design that could have been used to answer the same research question? Briefly describe how you would design this study and its methodology.

 

In this study, the author used the cross-sectional study design to determine the associations between the inappropriate use of IUCs and risk factors. All data (exposure and outcome) were collected by prevalence surveys in 2019, the study have demonstrated a relative objective result. However, a cross-sectional survey cannot obtain morbidity or mortality rate, and it is difficult to determine the causal relationship between exposure and disease. Thus, Retrospective cohort study would be alternative study design. Same population has been selected who had indwelling urethra catheterization. The exposed group would be patients with inappropriate indications use of an indwelling urethra catheter; the unexposed (control) group would be patients with appropriate indications use of an indwelling urethra catheter. The matching method can also be used in the design stage to select the control group, such as age, important prognostic factors (age, gender, medical ward, and surgery).

 

Methodology:

 

  1. Clarify the purpose of the research, establish outcome indicators and research factors, set PICO question.
  2. Determine the inclusion and exclusion criteria of research objects
  3. Calculate the sample size
  4. Collect baseline data of cases
  5. Outcomes of follow-up cases
  6. Perform statistical analysis to correct various confounding factors
  7. Summarize

 

Pease edit and add intext citation

 

  1. Choose one intervention (e.g. antimicrobial stewardship) described in any of

the resources provided by the NHS Improvement website to reduce gramnegative BSI in adults:

 

 

  1. Describe the intervention and the evidence (max. 5 references) supporting its use and efficacy

 

Appropriate catheter care

 

Need evidence supporting its use and efficacy Around 300 words

  1. Discuss whether you think the intervention is applicable to your

healthcare organisation

 

Need answer this question Around 300 words

 

 

Thank you so much!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Discuss whether you think the intervention is applicable to your healthcare organisation

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please provide a list of references (max 5) that you have used

    Get professional assignment help cheaply

    Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

    Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

    Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

    Why choose our academic writing service?

    • Plagiarism free papers
    • Timely delivery
    • Any deadline
    • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
    • Subject-relevant academic writer
    • Adherence to paper instructions
    • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
    • Reasonable prices
    • 24/7 Customer Support
    • Get superb grades consistently

     

     

     


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

fast coursework help

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

How It Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

 

smile and order essaysmile and order essayPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH USA ELITE WRITERS TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT

order custom essay paper
Published

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.