Please see the uploaded files for instructions，thank you. Please use the works of literature I provided as well. You can also add other literature relevant to the topic.
Below is some point I thought
Title: exploring potential influences among different perspectives
introduction with objectives (10%)
organization (20%), supporting evidence (20%), grammar and coherence (15%), opinion, critical review of a subject (20%),
Point1: potential influence on the economy
influence import and export, agricultural products trade
influence the trade inside the US.
producers changing their products labels, different influence to big food companies and small factories,
promote normal food & organic food market?
Point2: raising people’s awareness of keeping health, pay more attention to their health, food nutrients and exercise
The relationship between GMO foods and health?
Limitations? Future possibilities?
We cannot deny the significant role that GM technology plays in the world, institutions such as IRRI (https://www.irri.org/about-us )and …
What really matters/important is correct/proper propaganda, dispel people’s doubts and fears about GMO foods. /reassure consumers
not exceed five to six double-spaced pages (about 1500 words, use Times New Roman 12 fonts). This paper should be written in the form of a scientific paper including title, name and student contact, abstract, introduction, text, conclusion and reference list. References and visual materials (Tables, graphs, pictures) are not accounted for the length of the paper. Please refer to Journal of Food Science style guide, review manuscripts http://www.ift.org/knowledge-center/read-ift- publications/journal-of-food-science/authors-corner/jfs-author-guidelines.aspx. This guide can be also found in the Canvas: outlines, term papers section.
Please submit an electronic copy of paper to TAs (firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com) and instructor (firstname.lastname@example.org) and TAs by Oct 22nd, 2020 not later than 11:55 pm.
Positive and negative aspects of the new regulations of bioengineering (BE) foods for labelling in the US.*
www.osec.doc.gov www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/fdcact/fdcact1.htm (FDCA definitions)
|Submission of term paper||Oct 22nd, 2020|
|Group 4, 5, and 6 presentations||Nov 19th, 2020|
|Submission of electronic presentations||Nov 24th, 2020|
|Final Exam (TBC) – 2.5 hours||Dec 7th, 2020|
) In text
When the author’s name is part of the sentence structure, the citation consists of the year (in parenthesis) immediately following the name. Use “and others” rather than “et al.” In citations that are totally parenthetical, do not separate author and year with a comma. Use commas to separate publications in different years by the same author. Cite two or more publications of different authors in chronological sequence, from earliest to latest. Examples:
- Smith (2003) showed that . . . :
- . . . minimizes the variances (Chang 2012).
- . . . work (Green and others 2011) has shown that . . .
- . . . studies (Lucci and Mazzafera 2009, 2011) focused . . . • . . . work (Dawson 1999; Briggs 2004) demonstrated . . . • . . . reaction (Martín and others 2001a, b).
(b) In Reference section
List only references cited in the text. List references alphabetically by the first author’s last name. Single author precedes same author with co-authors. When the authors are identical in multiple references, sequence them by publication date (earliest to latest). Type references flush left as separate paragraphs. Below are examples of the most common types of references; for journal abbreviations and other examples of reference formats, refer to articles in a recent issue of the journal or contact the editorial office at email@example.com.
- Journal article: Author(s). Year. Article title. Journal abbreviation Volume(Issue optional): inclusive pages. Example:
Belcourt LA, Labuza TP. 2007. Effect of raffinose on sucrose recrystallization and texture changes in soft cookies. J Food Sci 72:C65–71.
Note: If the DOI of an article is known, include it at the end of the reference.
- Chapter in book: Author(s) of chapter. Year. Title of chapter. In: Name(s), editor(s). Title of book. Edition or volume, if relevant. Place of publication: Publisher name. Inclusive pages of chapter. Example:
Wypych G. 2004. Plasticizer motion and diffusion. In: Wypych C, editor. Handbook of plasticizers. Toronto: ChemTec Publishing. p 151–70.
- Conference Proceedings and Reports: Author(s) or editor(s). Year. Title. Name of conference or publication; place of conference; date(s) of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Example:
WHO. 2000. The medical impact of antimicrobial use in food animals. Report of a WHO Meeting; Berlin, Germany, 13–17 October 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
- Patent: Name of inventor(s) of the patented device or process; “inventor(s),” assignee. Year or date issued. Title. Patent descriptor [issuing country and patent number]. Example:
Liedl FG, Rowe KF, inventors. 2007. Nut butter and related products and method of making same. U.S. Patent 7235277.
- Web sites and other internet material: Organization or publisher. Year (if relevant). Title or webpage or database. Edition (if relevant). URL. Accessed year month date. Example:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2004. Review of the State of World Marine Fisheries Resources. General situation of world fish stocks. Available from: http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf. Accessed 2012 March 3.
GMO labelings are important to disclose information about BE food and GM ingredients to customers. The implementation of the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard (NBFDS) is mandatory across the U.S.. This paper argued the potential effects that BE labels may have to both customers, food industry and export from an economic perspective.
Key Words: BE labelings, Mandatory labeling, GM food
Since the middle of 1990s, GM crops were introduced into the United States (2) and started to serve as an ingredient of varies kinds of food products (?). Three federal agencies—USDA, FDA, and EAP work together to regulate genetically modifies foods (3). There has been a heated discussion among people regarding to/ about whether GMO foods should be labeled or not. On the one hand, GM foods have many advantages. For example, it has the potential to increase food productivity, enhance customer satisfaction, and offer potential public health benefits (4). On the other hand,
GM foods also have several disadvantages. People who oppose the consumption of it worry about the (?).
Providing BE labelings during food production has many benefits to consumers. Once the food products are regulated by mandatory GMO labels, customers can have access to the basic information about certain foods. However, the main aim of labeling is not only to provide the information about product attributes to buyers, but also to have an influence on consumers’behavior. For example, 糖产业例子（新4）. （巴西出口例子（6）放在后面export的段落。）
Once the food products are regulated by gmo labels, the customers will/can have access to the basic information about the certain foods.
(但是)原文：Mandatory labeling undoubtedly will provide information to consumers, but the real goal of mandatory labeling is not simply to provide information. The real goal of mandatory labeling is to influence behavior so that consumers make a paiticular choice, namely the choice to avoid those products with the genetically modified label(11). à
However, the main aim of mandatory labeling intends is not only to provide information about product attributes (/或者可以直接用下一句原文里的provide product attributes?) to buyers, but also to have an influence on consumers’ behavior and therefore avoid buying such products (11). (糖产业例子) A survey conducted by… shows that…(). (进一步扩展)原文：In some cases, product labels can serve as not only an identifier of the product attributes but also significantly affect the demand for other competing products on the market. (因为我觉得这个句子not only后面的内容和上一句论点一样，然后but also后面的内容可以当作拓展。)(2) And what is more(有什么官方说法T T?能说on the other hand吗?), in some cases(咋改?还是直接去掉比较好？), （除了对带gmo标签的食品本身，还会对其他竞争产品有影响）
Apart from affect foods with GM labels itself, the demand for unlabeled alternative products will be influenced as well.(Q:我如果想到一个想法和已经也想到这个想法的人一样，那我到底引用不引用？会是剽窃吗？)
(解释原因+造成结果) 原文：One major marketing implication of this result is that when GM-labeling is mandatory, non-GM products may not need the not-GM label because consumers will perceive non-labeled products as not containing GMs, which will of course be true. Hence, in the case of fresh produce, the existence of mandatory labels will mitigate the need for not-GM labels for non-GM products. This will reduce supply chain costs, in particular to growers focusing on not-GM produce, because they generally bear the costs of certifications and labels. (2conclu)
Among the potential negative impacts of implementing mandatory GMO labeling, opponents are particularly concerned about consumers misinterpreting the mandatory GM labels as a warning that GM food has a higher associated risk. (2)
This is due to the fact that consumers may regard GM labels as a warning, hence, foods without GM labels means they do not have any GM ingredients and is safer and healthier.(2)
This is due to the fact that foods without GM labels means they do not have any GM ingredients, and “the existence of mandatory labels will mitigate the need for not-GM labels for non-GM products” (2).
(或者直接和进一步拓展句合并成一句?apart from the above consequence, the demand for unlabeled alternative products will be influenced as well because “the existence of mandatory labels will mitigate the need for not-GM labels for non-GM products” (2).)(删去原因：太长了)
Mandatory GMO labeling
The calculation of the cost of producing GM labels will be challenging.
Genetically engineered foods contain extraneous genetic material and therefore could express features different from traditional breeding method (11).
For example, AquAdvantage salmon, a genetic modification the Atlantic salmon, has the ability to grow faster and will bring producers more profits (11, ). Thus, it is hard to judge whether profits generated by selling could exceed the cost of production including labeling. (Or simply cost of labeling?)（“the costs of labels and certifications”（2））
Since the middle of 1990s, GM crops were introduced into the United States (旧2). Three federal agencies—USDA, FDA, and EAP work together to regulate genetically modifies foods (旧3). There has been a heated discussion among people regarding to whether GMO foods should be labeled or not. In July 2016, in order to “address the variation in state-level GMO labeling”, the U.S. congress passed the national GMO labeling law, which requires all food producers disclose the genetically modified ingredients in their products(j9).
BE labeling can provides lots of useful information to customers. Once food products are regulated by GMO labels, the customers can have access to the basic information about the certain foods. Labeling also enhance consumers “right to know” and build a bridge of trust between consumers and producers. () Producers can have direct access to the process of food production. However, compared with producers, “consumers cannot directly observe the process, implying they have asymmetric information relative to producers” (2).
However, the main aim of mandatory labeling intends not only to provide information about product attributes to buyers, but it also could have a negative influence on consumers’ behavior. Actually, the demand for non-GM alternative products will be influenced as well. This is due to the fact that consumers may regard GM labels as a warning. Consumers could have the misconception that genetically modified foods are not safe, and perceive that only foods without GM labels, which means they do not have any GM ingredients, are safer and healthier to their body (2). a’(2003) study demonstrated that consumers’ “willingness to pay” for genetically modified foods decreased when they were labeled. Their experiment results had showed that U.S. consumers price-discounted foods with GM labels by “an average of 14% relative to the standard-labeled food” (a). In the U.S. sugar market, almost all beet sugar is GE, while cane sugar is GE-free. According to 4’s study, after the promulgation of mandatory labeling law in July 2016, Vermont’s beet sugar suffered a 13% price discount whereas the price of cane sugar increased about 1%. 4.1′ study also demonstrated that consumers preference for non-GM labeled sugar when it comes to imported sugars.
BE labeling could also affect export and thus influence the whole food industry.
Many countries and regions have established labeling policy regarding genetically modified food. 8 found that the regulations “vary considerably across countries” across counties are not similar and “countries producing GM crops are more likely to have less stringent labeling policies”. In Europe, non-GM products are becoming more and more welcomed by consumers. Producing non-GM crops could be an advantage for export and enhance opportunities to food manufactures. 6’s study showed that during 1986 to 2010, Brazilian non-genetically modified soybeans exported about 3 million tons to four EU countries. However, in the meantime, the import from the U.S. decreased almost 5 million tons (6). Food labels can also be used as a “non-tariff trade barrier” (7tegene et al., 2003). Importers’ policy on genetically modified organisms affects the United States’ corn and soybean export volume as well (5).
In some cases, it is hard to judge whether profits generated by selling could exceed the cost of production including labeling. Labeling costs includes fixed costs like testing and identity preservation, and variable costs of “monitoring for truthfulness”. (a) Besides, genetically engineered foods contain extraneous genetic material and therefore could express features different from traditional breeding method (11). For example, AquAdvantage salmon, a genetic modification the Atlantic salmon, has the ability to grow faster and will bring producers more profits (11). Therefore, with the “global inconsistence in GMO regulations” scenario, it is important to establish explicit policies and build “people’s trust in food crop regulations” (e).
Mandatory BE labeling can also have a long-run effect: due to the customer’s preferences and price premium, many food manufactures will choose to produce food that is not genetically modified(j1). In other words, GM labeling can be an incentive for both small food firms and food giants, and for both export and domestic selling process.
With the rapid development of transgenic technology and its comprehensive application in food industry, medicine and even national defense, people have no choice but to accept and live with it. FDA and other regulators are responsible for the supervision of genetically modified foods (GMF) on a regular basis and should avoid abusive legislation. Considering the fact that the decision of whether to adopt GM technology or not is eventually up to the consumers, governments and state regulatory authorities should not ignore customers’ opinion and should pay closely attention to public response.
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